(High-tech) 미 전문가들, 하이테크 수출 제한의 완화 건의

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By CORNELIA DEAN and WILLIAM J. BROAD ⓒ 2009 New York Times News Service When Barack Obama takes office as president, he should immediately change or even scrap many Cold War-era regulations on high-tech exports and on immigration by foreign scientists and engineers, an expert panel said Thursday. 8일 한 전문가 그룹은 버락 오바마 대통령이 취임 직후에 하이테크 수출과 외국 과학자들과 엔지니어들의 이민을 제한하는 다수의 냉전시대 규정들을 폐기하거나 수정해야 한다고 말했다. Restricting foreigners’ access to strategically important technology might have been useful decades ago, when the United States was the undisputed world leader across the technological spectrum, the panel said in a report issued by the National Academy of Sciences. But today, it said, the nation is losing scientific and engineering dominance even as militarily useful advances come increasingly from civilian research. 국립과학원(the National Academy of Sciences)이 발표한 보고서를 통하여 이 그룹은 미국이 테크놀로지 전반에 걸쳐서 확고한 세계 지도자이던 수 십 년 전에는 전략적으로 중요한 테크놀로지에 대한 외국인들의 접근을 제한할 필요가 있었다고 말했다. 그러나 오늘날 군사적으로 유용한 진보도 민간 리서치에서 이루어지는 사례가 점점 늘어가고 있는 가운데 미국은 과학과 엔지니어링에 있어서의 절대적 우위를 잃어가고 있다고 이 보고서는 말했다. The regulations do little for the nation’s security, the panel said, while significantly hampering economic growth and innovation. 이 그룹은 그러한 규정들은 미국의 안보에 별 도움이 되지 않고 있으며 한편 경제 성장과 창의적 발전에 큰 장애가 되고 있다고 말했다. “We have failed to distinguish between technology which really does pose a fundamental threat, such as things having to do with nuclear weapons, and technologies which are broadly available,” like some computer or telecommunication technology, John Hennessy, the co-chairman of the panel, said in an interview. “In some cases, we have technologies that go on our export control list that are legally available outside the United States in unrestricted form.” The National Research Council, the research arm of the National Academy of Sciences, convened the expert panel, headed by Dr. Hennessy, an electrical engineer who is president of Stanford; and retired Air Force Lt. Gen. Brent Scowcroft, who was national security adviser to Presidents Gerald R. Ford and George H. W. Bush. The report is at www.nas.edu. Export rules or immigration restrictions on scientists and engineers draw little public attention, but they are an important part of what some analysts call “the ecology of innovation” — factors in society that inhibit or enhance the development of useful and profitable technologies. People expected to deal with these issues in the Obama administration would not comment on the report. But in a technology position paper issued during his presidential campaign, Mr. Obama said he supported “comprehensive immigration reform” to encourage skilled workers to enter and remain in the United States. Speaking of the aerospace industry, he said he would review export rules he said had “unduly hampered” competitiveness. In their report, panel members said they deliberately designed recommendations that could be put into effect at once, through an executive order, which they said should be “one of the first orders of business in January.” But Baker Spring, a national security analyst with the Heritage Foundation, said that while there might be merit in some immediate changes, anything that could be done quickly “is almost certain to be incomplete.” Mr. Spring, who said he had not read the report, said he favored a country-by-country approach because policies appropriate for “close allies” like Great Britain or Australia might not be appropriate for countries like China. Among other things, the panel said the president should do the following: ¶ Restructure the export control process to advance economic competitiveness as well as national security, allowing “openness and engagement to prevail unless a compelling case can be made for restrictions” which, in turn, must have “a rational basis.” ¶ Require controls to be reassessed at least yearly. ¶ Establish two independent panels within the National Security Council to assess controls and decide disputes about export limits. ¶ Streamline the visa process for scientists and engineers and automatically allow foreign students to remain in the country at least a year after earning advanced degrees in scientific or technical fields. ¶ Allow United States experts to vouch for “well-known scholars and researchers” seeking to enter the United States. (ⓒ 2009 The New York Times) (ⓒ 2009 www.usabriefing.net)
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